Rugged LCD and Industrial Computer Workstation Solutions for Highly Demanding Applications

Subscribe to Our Mailing List for all our product updates

ITAR Registered Logo

Microsoft Certified Partner logo

Technical Terms

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


Active Area- Effective Area In the viewing area of the LCD glass, the dimensions of the perimeter of the conductive area.

Active Matrix Display- A type of display which uses Thin-Film Transistors (TFT) to control each pixel individually. Active Matrix Displays offer higher contrast ratios, wider viewing angles, and faster response times than Passive Matrix Displays.

Aperture Ratio- The actual light-transmitting area against the theoretical sub-pixel size calculated with active area and resolution.

Aspect Ratio- The relationship of width and height. When an image is displayed on different screens, the aspect ratio must be kept the same to avoid 'stretching' in either the vertical or horizontal direction. For most current monitors, this ratio is 4:3. For HDTV, the ratio will be 16:9 or 16:10.

ATEX- The ATEX directive consists of two EU directives describing what equipment and work environment is allowed in an environment with an explosive atmosphere. ATEX derives its name from the French title of the 94/9/EC directive: Appareils destinés à être utilisés en ATmosphères EXplosives.


- Some LCD displays are illuminated by the use of separate light sources or backlight that are built into the unit behind the LCD panel.

Bezel- A frame of plastic or metal, fitting over the LCD glass, to protect the edges of the glass, ESD(Electro Static Discharge), and to reinforce LCD structure.

Brightness- The attribute of visual perception in accordance with which an area appears to emit more of less light. (Luminance is the recommended name for the photo-electric quantity which has also been called brightness.)

CCFL Cold Cathode Backlight- A type of fluorescent backlighting or edge lighting.

Cell Gap- The space containing liquid crystal fluid between the two pieces of glass.

COG CHIP-ON-GLASS- A new technology that mounts the LCD driver to the contact edge of the LCD glass.

Contrast Ratio - The difference in luminance between all-white divided by the brightness of an all black.

Color Temperature- Measured in degrees Kelvin, reference to color temperature provides a standard for defining standard colors emitted from computer displays. 6500K is close to the European TV standard, and close to the white color under the sun at noon.

Cross Talk- A phenomenon occurring when voltage from an energized element leaks to an adjacent OFF element and turns the adjacent element partially ON, making them slightly visible.



Digital Visual Interface (DVI)- A digital flat panel interface introduced by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG). Although other interfaces have been introduced, DVI is expected to become the industry standard.

Display Data Channel (DDC)- A communication channel for the transmission of information between the display monitor and the PC that allows for automatic configuration of the hardware. In other words, "Plug and Play" compatibility.

Dot Clock/Dot Frequency- The frequency with which dots (or pixels) are illuminated on the screen; how quickly a single dot can be produced on the screen.
A general formula for calculating the dot frequency is: H x V x refresh-rate x 1.25( to1.3)

Dot Pitch- The distance between one pixel to adjacent pixel (not sub pixel). Dot pitch gives a general idea of the monitor's ability to produce sharp images.

Embedded System- A computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.

Fan Less- An LCD or computer system that does not use an electronic device to move air through it's components for cooling. A fanless device will typical use cooling fins to dissipate heat or a water system to create a heat exchange between water and heat. Fanless systems are more quiet and usually have a smaller mechanical footprint.


GHOSTING - Refer to "Cross Talk"


HMI- Human Machine Interface. An apparatus or device which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator monitors and controls the process.

Higher color saturation- makes the display more vivid and increases the image quality.
With CMO's newly developed high color saturation technology, the color saturation of LCD could be increased even reach NTSC 100%, which is 1.4 times of that of current CRT (sRGB specification, same as the HDTV specification). more info


Inverter- Converts DC to AC at a high frequency & voltage, and powers fluorescent lamps.

IPS - In-Plane Switching. Single domain IPS has slight color shifts under certain viewing angle, but Dual domain IPS has less color shifts.

IP - Ingress Protection Rating sometimes also interpreted as International Protection Rating, classifies and rates the degree of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in mechanical casings and with electrical enclosures.



Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)- A glass panel display that electronically controls the light passing it using liquid crystal.

LVDS- Low Voltage Differential Signaling.

MTBF- Mean Time Between Failures, is the predicted elapsed time between inherent failures of a system during operation.

MIL-STD/MIL-SPEC- A United States defense standard, often called a military standard, "MIL-STD", "MIL-SPEC", or informally pronounced "MilSpecs", is used to help achieve standardization objectives by the U.S. Department of Defense.

Module- An LCD which includes a PCB, driver electronics, bezel, and possibly a backlight.

Native Resolution- Refers to a single fixed resolution of a LCD, LCoS or other flat panel display.

NEMA- NEMA defines standards for various grades of electrical enclosures typically used in industrial applications. Each is rated to protect against designated environmental conditions. A typical NEMA enclosure might be rated to provide protection against environmental hazards such as water, dust, oil or coolant or atmospheres containing corrosive agents such as acetylene or gasoline.

Polarize - A stretched polymer which transmits light in only one axis. A typical display has polarizes on the front and back.

Panel Mount - A device that such as an LCD flat panel display or an all-in-one computer that can be attached to a cut out in a panel, box, or frame.


Refresh Rate- The frequency with which the entire image on the screen is redrawn. The refresh rate is measured in hertz, therefore, a refresh rate of 60 Hz, means the image is redrawn 60 times per second.

Response time- Time interval between 10%(on) to 90%(on) or 90%(off) to 10%(off) of brightness.

RGB- The initials of the colors Red, Green and Blue. Any color can be composed with the combination of the three colors.



sRGB - a color space defined by Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard with the aim of color matching between applications and hardware devices such as monitors, scanners, printers, and digital cameras.

TAB Tape Automated Bonding- LCD driver or controller electronics are encapsulated in a thin, film like package, with metal leads extension from the IC chips.

TFT- Thin Film Transistor: a type of LCD flat-panel display screen, in which each pixel is controlled by from one to four transistors. TFT technology provides the best resolution of all the current flat-panel techniques. TFT screens are sometimes called active-matrix LCDs.

Twisted Nematic (TN)- A type of liquid crystal where the alignment surface, and therefore the liquid crystal molecules, is oriented 90 degrees from each surface of glass.

VBond- Vartech's proprietary bonding technique which permanently bonds the front protective glass overlay or touch screen directly to the front face of the LCD display. This process improves brightness and viewability in direct sunlight or high ambient light conditions by eliminating reflection. This bonding process also increases front panel durability.

VESA- Video Electronics Standards Association

Viewing Angle- A cone perpendicular to the LCD in which minimum contrast can be seen.